It is partly a historical document of what it was like to live in those times, and was rather dated in ways in 2014, when I revised it.My energy and the human journey essay, published in 2014, will be periodically updated, but this essay likely will not be revised much in the future.
Migrating farmers from Fertile Crescent settle Indus valley in present day Pakistan. A four hundred year period of chaos and warfare begins to sweep Europe, the Fertile Crescent, and Mediterranean region.The Greeks make the first heat-treated iron weapons. Themistocles, and later Pericles, rebuilds Athens into a great city.At its height, of its 200,000 inhabitants, only 50,000 were citizens (men). Rome begins rising as a power, eventually defeating the Etruscans of today’s northern Italy, and incorporate Etruria’s cultural and technical achievements.This is the beginning of the High Middle Ages and height of the Medieval Warm Period.Northern and central Europe, especially the Germanic lands, engage in great age of deforestation, making way for civilization, clearing about a third of the forest in a couple of centuries, and up to 75% deforestation by the end of the medieval era. Christian conquest of Toledo, which introduces European scholars to the ancient Greek writings via Islam.Hunter-gatherer lifestyle is increasingly unsustainable. Domestication Revolution begins in Fertile Crescent and the Americas. Migration wave of pastoral societies from steppe regions (generally between the Caspian and Black Seas) into the Fertile Crescent, India, and Europe.